What is Angioplasty?

Angioplasty is a medical procedure used to widen narrowed or obstructed arteries or veins, typically to treat conditions like coronary artery disease. It involves inserting a balloon-tipped catheter into the affected blood vessel and inflating it to restore proper blood flow.

Angioplasty is a medical procedure used to treat narrow or blocked arteries and veins, primarily in the heart (coronary angioplasty) and elsewhere in the body (peripheral angioplasty). It is a minimally invasive intervention that aims to restore blood flow through the affected vessels.

Types of Angioplasty:

Coronary Angioplasty (Percutaneous Coronary Intervention, PCI):

Balloon Angioplasty: A catheter with a deflated balloon at its tip is inserted into a narrowed coronary artery. The balloon is inflated to compress the plaque against the artery walls, widening the vessel and restoring blood flow.

Stenting: Often performed alongside balloon angioplasty, a stent (a small mesh tube) is inserted into the artery to keep it open after the balloon is removed. Stents can be bare-metal or drug-eluting (coated with medications to prevent re-narrowing).

Peripheral Angioplasty:

Similar to coronary angioplasty but performed in arteries outside the heart, such as those in the legs (for peripheral artery disease), kidneys, or neck (carotid artery disease). It involves using balloons and sometimes stents to open blocked arteries and improve blood flow.

Benefits of Angioplasty:

Improved Blood Flow: Angioplasty restores blood flow through narrowed or blocked arteries, reducing symptoms such as chest pain (angina) in coronary artery disease or leg pain in peripheral artery disease.

Reduced Risk of Heart Attack: By opening blocked coronary arteries, angioplasty can help prevent heart attacks by restoring blood flow to the heart muscle.

Minimally Invasive: Compared to traditional open surgery, angioplasty is less invasive, resulting in shorter hospital stays, quicker recovery times, and lower risk of complications.

Risks and Complications:

Bleeding: At the insertion site.

Blood Vessel Damage: During catheter insertion.

Allergic Reaction: To the contrast dye.

Blood Clots: Formation at the stent site.

Restenosis: Re-narrowing of the artery over time, especially with bare-metal stents.

When is Angioplasty Needed?

Angioplasty is needed when arteries or veins become narrowed or blocked, leading to reduced blood flow and potential complications. Here are specific conditions and situations where angioplasty may be necessary:

Coronary Artery Disease (CAD): Angioplasty is commonly performed to treat coronary arteries that have become narrowed due to atherosclerosis (buildup of plaque). This condition can lead to angina (chest pain) or even heart attacks if the blood flow to the heart muscle is severely restricted.

Heart Attack (Acute Myocardial Infarction): During a heart attack, a coronary artery is often completely blocked by a blood clot, leading to damage to the heart muscle. Emergency angioplasty, known as primary PCI (Percutaneous Coronary Intervention), is performed urgently to restore blood flow and minimize heart muscle damage.

Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD): Angioplasty is used to treat narrowed arteries in the legs (or sometimes arms), improving blood flow and relieving symptoms such as leg pain or cramping during physical activity (claudication).

Carotid Artery Disease: Narrowing of the carotid arteries in the neck due to plaque buildup can increase the risk of stroke. Angioplasty may be used in conjunction with stenting to reduce the risk of stroke by improving blood flow to the brain.

Renal Artery Stenosis: When the arteries supplying blood to the kidneys become narrowed, it can lead to hypertension (high blood pressure) and kidney damage. Angioplasty with or without stenting may be considered to restore normal kidney function and control blood pressure.

Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) Surgery Complications: Sometimes, after CABG surgery, grafts can become narrowed or blocked. Angioplasty may be used to reopen these grafts to maintain blood flow to the heart muscle.

When is Angioplasty Necessary?

Angioplasty becomes necessary when a person’s coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart muscle, become narrowed or blocked due to atherosclerosis (buildup of cholesterol-containing deposits called plaques). This condition, known as coronary artery disease (CAD), can lead to reduced blood flow to the heart, resulting in chest pain (angina), shortness of breath, or even a heart attack if a blockage completely cuts off blood supply.

The procedure of angioplasty involves inserting a thin, flexible tube (catheter) into the narrowed artery. At the tip of the catheter, there’s a deflated balloon that, once in place, is inflated to compress the plaque against the artery walls, widening the artery and restoring blood flow. Often, a stent (a small mesh tube) is placed at the site of the blockage to help keep the artery open.

Angioplasty is typically considered necessary under several circumstances:

Symptomatic Coronary Artery Disease: When a person experiences symptoms such as chest pain (angina) or shortness of breath that significantly affect their quality of life.

Unstable Angina: When symptoms suggest that the heart is not getting enough blood flow even at rest, which may indicate a high risk of heart attack.

Heart Attack (Myocardial Infarction): Angioplasty is often performed as an emergency procedure to restore blood flow to the heart muscle when a coronary artery is completely blocked.

Diagnostic Angiography: Sometimes, angioplasty is performed as part of a diagnostic procedure to assess the extent and location of blockages in the coronary arteries.

Failed Medical Therapy: When lifestyle changes and medications fail to adequately control symptoms or reduce the risk of heart attack.

Multi-vessel Disease: When multiple coronary arteries are narrowed or blocked, angioplasty can address more than one artery to improve overall blood flow to the heart.

Overall, the decision to perform angioplasty is based on a careful evaluation of the individual’s symptoms, overall health, and the extent of coronary artery disease. It is often considered alongside other treatments such as lifestyle changes, medications, and sometimes coronary artery bypass surgery, depending on the specific circumstances of each patient.

Conclusion :

Archana Hospital provides advanced angioplasty procedures with a focus on precision and patient care. Our expert cardiologists utilize state-of-the-art technology to ensure optimal outcomes in treating arterial blockages. From thorough diagnostics to personalized treatment plans, we prioritize patient safety and comfort throughout the procedure. At Archana Hospital, we are committed to delivering exceptional cardiac care with compassion and expertise, aiming to improve patients’ quality of life effectively and efficiently.

Shoulder Replacement Surgery

What is Shoulder Replacement Surgery?

Shoulder replacement surgery is a procedure to replace damaged parts of the shoulder joint with artificial components, aiming to relieve pain and improve function in patients with severe shoulder arthritis or other conditions affecting the joint.

Shoulder replacement surgery, also known as shoulder arthroplasty, is a surgical procedure performed to replace the damaged parts of the shoulder joint with artificial components. The primary goal of this procedure is to reduce pain and restore function in individuals whose shoulder joint has been severely affected by arthritis or other conditions.

Anatomy of the Shoulder Joint

The shoulder joint is a ball-and-socket joint formed by the humerus (upper arm bone), scapula (shoulder blade), and clavicle (collarbone). The ball-shaped head of the humerus fits into the shallow socket of the scapula, known as the glenoid. Surrounding the joint are muscles, tendons, and ligaments that provide stability and movement.

Reasons for Shoulder Replacement Surgery

Shoulder replacement surgery is typically considered for individuals with:

Osteoarthritis: Degenerative wear and tear of the joint cartilage due to aging.

Rheumatoid arthritis: Autoimmune condition causing inflammation and joint damage.

Post-traumatic arthritis: Arthritis developing after a severe shoulder injury.

Avascular necrosis: Loss of blood supply to the humeral head, leading to bone death.

Severe fractures: Complex fractures of the shoulder that cannot be repaired adequately.

Failed previous surgeries: When other treatments have not provided sufficient relief

Types of Shoulder Replacement

There are several types of shoulder replacement surgeries, each chosen based on the patient’s specific condition and the extent of joint damage:

Total Shoulder Replacement: Involves replacing both the ball (humeral head) and the socket (glenoid) with prosthetic components. This is the most common type.

Partial Shoulder Replacement (Hemiarthroplasty): Only the damaged humeral head is replaced with a metal ball and stem, while the natural socket (glenoid) is left intact. This procedure is often chosen for patients with severe fractures or other conditions affecting only the humeral head.

Reverse Shoulder Replacement: This innovative procedure is used when there is severe damage to the rotator cuff muscles and tendons, making a traditional replacement ineffective. In a reverse shoulder replacement, the positions of the ball and socket are reversed: the metal ball is attached to the socket side (glenoid), and the plastic socket is attached to the humeral side. This design relies on the deltoid muscle instead of the damaged rotator cuff to power and stabilize the shoulder.

Who Needs Shoulder Replacement Surgery?

Shoulder replacement surgery is typically recommended for individuals who experience severe shoulder pain and impaired function that significantly impacts their quality of life and does not respond adequately to non-surgical treatments. Here are the common conditions that may necessitate shoulder replacement:


Osteoarthritis is the most common reason for shoulder replacement surgery. It occurs when the cartilage that cushions the bones of the shoulder joint wears down over time, leading to pain, stiffness, and reduced range of motion. As the condition progresses, bone-on-bone contact can cause severe pain and further deterioration of the joint.

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disorder where the body’s immune system attacks the synovial membrane surrounding the joint, causing inflammation, pain, and eventual destruction of the cartilage and bone within the joint. Shoulder replacement may be considered when medications and other treatments fail to control symptoms.

Post-Traumatic Arthritis

Severe shoulder fractures or injuries can disrupt the shoulder joint’s normal anatomy and lead to post-traumatic arthritis. If the joint surfaces do not heal properly or are damaged irreparably, shoulder replacement surgery may be necessary to alleviate pain and restore function.

Avascular Necrosis

Avascular necrosis occurs when the blood supply to the humeral head (ball of the shoulder joint) is disrupted, causing bone tissue death and subsequent joint deterioration. This condition can result from trauma, long-term corticosteroid use, or certain medical conditions. Shoulder replacement may be required if conservative treatments fail to alleviate symptoms.

Rotator Cuff Tear Arthropathy

Rotator cuff tear arthropathy is a condition where a massive and irreparable tear of the rotator cuff tendons leads to arthritis of the shoulder joint. This can cause pain, weakness, and loss of function. In such cases, a traditional shoulder replacement may not be effective, and a reverse shoulder replacement might be recommended to restore stability and function.

Failed Previous Surgeries

Individuals who have undergone unsuccessful shoulder surgeries, such as failed previous shoulder replacements or other procedures that have not provided adequate pain relief or restored function, may benefit from revision shoulder replacement surgery.

Other Conditions

Less common indications for shoulder replacement surgery include severe shoulder joint infections (septic arthritis), tumors affecting the shoulder joint, or certain congenital conditions that affect the shoulder joint’s development or structure.

How to Prepare for Shoulder Replacement Surgery

Preparing for shoulder replacement surgery involves several important steps to ensure a smooth recovery and optimal outcome. Here’s a comprehensive guide:

Consultation and Evaluation: Schedule appointments with your orthopedic surgeon to discuss the procedure, understand its benefits and risks, and ask any questions you have. Ensure all pre-operative tests (blood work, imaging) are completed as advised.

Medical Optimization: Follow your doctor’s instructions regarding medications. Adjust or stop medications as directed, particularly blood thinners or anti-inflammatory drugs that could affect surgery.

Physical Preparation: Strengthening exercises for your arms and shoulders can aid in post-surgery recovery. Your surgeon or a physical therapist may provide specific exercises to improve strength and flexibility.

Home Preparation: Arrange your home for post-surgery comfort and convenience. This may include setting up a recovery area on the ground floor, installing grab bars in the bathroom, and ensuring easy access to daily items.

Nutrition and Hydration: Eat a balanced diet rich in nutrients to support healing. Ensure you stay hydrated, as it aids in recovery and reduces the risk of complications.

Pre-Surgery Lifestyle: Quit smoking and limit alcohol consumption, as they can interfere with healing. Maintain a healthy weight to reduce stress on your new joint.

Support System: Arrange for someone to assist you after surgery, especially during the initial recovery period when mobility may be limited. This could involve help with daily activities or transportation to medical appointments.

Understanding Post-Surgery: Familiarize yourself with what to expect after surgery, including potential complications and the timeline for recovery. This knowledge can help manage expectations and reduce anxiety.

Logistics Planning: Plan for transportation to and from the hospital on the day of surgery. Pack necessary items for your hospital stay, including comfortable clothing and toiletries.

Emotional Preparation: Stay informed and maintain a positive outlook. Discuss any concerns with your healthcare team to address fears or uncertainties about the procedure.

Benefits of Shoulder Replacement Surgery?

Shoulder replacement surgery, also known as shoulder arthroplasty, offers several significant benefits for individuals suffering from severe shoulder pain and dysfunction:

Pain Relief: One of the primary benefits is relief from chronic shoulder pain, which can be caused by conditions like osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or fractures. The surgery replaces damaged joint surfaces with prosthetic components, reducing pain significantly.

Improved Functionality: Shoulder replacement surgery restores mobility and function to the shoulder joint. This allows individuals to perform daily activities such as dressing, bathing, and reaching overhead with less discomfort and greater ease.

Enhanced Range of Motion: The surgery can improve the range of motion in the shoulder, allowing for better flexibility and movement. This is particularly beneficial for activities that require a wide range of arm motion, such as sports or hobbies.

Better Quality of Life: With reduced pain and improved function, patients often experience an overall better quality of life. They can participate more fully in activities they enjoy and regain independence in daily tasks.

Long-term Durability: Modern shoulder prosthetics are designed to be durable and long-lasting. While individual results may vary, many patients can expect their shoulder replacement to provide a reliable function for years, improving their long-term outlook.

Joint Stability: The surgery stabilizes the shoulder joint, reducing the risk of dislocations or other instability issues that may have been present before the procedure.

Less Invasive Techniques: Advancements in surgical techniques, such as minimally invasive approaches, have reduced recovery times and minimized surgical trauma compared to traditional open procedures.

Reliable Option for Older Adults: Shoulder replacement is a viable option for older adults who may have other health conditions or limited mobility. It can effectively alleviate pain and restore function without the risks associated with prolonged pain management or reduced activity.

What to Expect Before and After Shoulder Replacement Surgery

Shoulder replacement surgery is a procedure aimed at relieving severe pain and improving function in shoulders affected by arthritis or severe fractures. Here’s what you can expect before and after the surgery:

Before Surgery:

Consultation and Preparation: You’ll meet with your orthopedic surgeon to discuss the procedure, your medical history, and any concerns.

Medical Evaluation: You may undergo tests such as X-rays, MRI scans, and blood tests to assess your shoulder’s condition and ensure you’re fit for surgery.

Physical Therapy: Strengthening exercises and range-of-motion activities may be prescribed to optimize your shoulder’s condition before surgery.

Education: Your surgeon will explain the surgical procedure, potential risks, expected outcomes, and post-operative rehabilitation plan.

After Surgery:

Hospital Stay: Typically, you’ll stay in the hospital for a few days to monitor your recovery and manage pain.

Pain Management: Medications and physical therapy will be initiated to manage pain and restore shoulder function.

Rehabilitation: Physical therapy is crucial for restoring strength, flexibility, and range of motion in your shoulder. This usually begins soon after surgery and continues for several months.

Follow-up Visits: You’ll have regular follow-up appointments with your surgeon to monitor healing, assess range of motion, and ensure the replacement is functioning properly.

Long-term Expectations: Over time, you can expect reduced pain and improved shoulder function, allowing you to resume daily activities and potentially return to sports or hobbies.

Conclusion :

Shoulder replacement surgery at Archana Hospitals offers a comprehensive solution for patients suffering from severe shoulder pain and dysfunction. With advanced medical technology and a team of highly skilled orthopedic surgeons, the hospital provides personalized care from pre-surgery preparation through rehabilitation. Patients benefit from reduced pain, improved shoulder function, and a tailored rehabilitation program to ensure optimal recovery. Trust Archana Hospitals for expert care and a supportive journey towards regaining your shoulder’s strength and mobility.

Tonsils and Adenoids

What Are Tonsils and Adenoids?


Tonsils and adenoids are part of the immune system, located in the throat. Tonsils are clusters of lymphoid tissue while adenoids are located behind the nose. Both help protect against infections but may be removed if they become chronically infected or enlarged.

Tonsils and adenoids are specialized structures that form part of the lymphatic system, specifically the immune system and are located in the upper respiratory tract.


Tonsils are clusters of lymphoid tissue located at the back of the throat, on either side. There are three main sets of tonsils in the human body:

Palatine Tonsils: These are the tonsils most commonly referred to when discussing tonsillitis or tonsillectomies. They are located on either side at the back of the throat.

Pharyngeal Tonsil (Adenoid): This tonsil is located high in the throat behind the nose and roof of the mouth.

Lingual Tonsils: These are found at the base of the tongue.

Tonsils play a role in the immune system, particularly in the early years of life, helping to protect against infections by trapping bacteria and viruses that enter through the mouth and nose. They contain immune cells (lymphocytes) that produce antibodies to fight off infections. However, they can sometimes become infected themselves, leading to conditions like tonsillitis, characterized by sore throat, fever, and difficulty swallowing.


Adenoids, formally known as the pharyngeal tonsil, are similar to tonsils but are located higher up in the throat behind the nose and roof of the mouth. They are not visible through the mouth and are composed of the same type of lymphoid tissue as tonsils.

Adenoids function similarly to tonsils in that they help to trap bacteria and viruses that enter through the nose and mouth. They also play a role in producing antibodies to fight infections. Adenoids are most active during childhood and typically begin to shrink around the age of 5 or 6, eventually almost disappearing by adolescence.


Both tonsils and adenoids are part of the body’s first line of defense against infections that enter through the nose and mouth. They help to sample pathogens that are breathed in or swallowed, initiating an immune response to neutralize them before they can spread further into the body.

Health Issues:

While tonsils and adenoids play a crucial role in immunity, they can also become problematic:

Tonsillitis: Inflammation and infection of the tonsils, often leading to sore throat, fever, and difficulty swallowing.

Adenoiditis: Inflammation and infection of the adenoids, which can cause symptoms like nasal congestion, ear infections, and breathing difficulties.

Enlargement: Tonsils and adenoids can become enlarged due to chronic infections or allergies, which may obstruct breathing or cause sleep disturbances.

Chronic Infections: Recurrent infections may indicate the need for removal (tonsillectomy or adenoidectomy).


Medication: Mild infections may be treated with antibiotics or antiviral medications.

Surgery: If infections become chronic or severe, or if enlarged tonsils or adenoids obstruct breathing or sleep, surgical removal (tonsillectomy or adenoidectomy) may be recommended. This is a common procedure, especially in children.

What Are Tonsils and Adenoids, and Why Are They Removed?

Tonsils and adenoids are part of the body’s lymphatic system, crucial for immune function and defense against infections. Tonsils are located at the back of the throat, while adenoids are situated higher up, behind the nose.


These are collections of lymphoid tissue that help trap bacteria and viruses entering through the mouth and nose. They produce antibodies and white blood cells to fight infections, particularly in childhood. However, they can themselves become infected, leading to tonsillitis. Symptoms include sore throat, difficulty swallowing, fever, and swollen glands.


Also known as pharyngeal tonsils, adenoids are located near the nasal passages. They perform similar functions to tonsils, helping to trap germs entering through the nose. They are most active during childhood and typically shrink in size during adolescence.

Reasons for Removal:

Recurrent Infections: If tonsils or adenoids repeatedly become infected despite conservative treatments like antibiotics, their removal (tonsillectomy or adenoidectomy) may be recommended to prevent ongoing health issues.

Obstruction: Enlarged tonsils or adenoids can obstruct breathing, leading to sleep apnea or difficulty breathing through the nose. This can impair sleep quality, cause snoring, and affect daytime functioning.

Chronic or Persistent Symptoms: Persistent symptoms such as chronic tonsillitis (inflammation of tonsils), difficulty swallowing due to large tonsil size, or chronic ear infections associated with adenoid enlargement may necessitate surgical removal.

Cancer Screening: In some cases, removal may be recommended to evaluate tissue for cancerous growth, although this is less common.


After surgery, patients may experience throat pain, difficulty swallowing, and earaches, which usually resolve within a week or two. It’s essential to follow post-operative care instructions, including pain management and dietary guidelines, to aid healing and prevent complications.

Common Problems Associated with Tonsils and Adenoids

Tonsils and adenoids are lymphoid tissues located in the throat and nasal passages, respectively. While they play roles in the immune system, they can also be prone to various health issues. Common problems associated with tonsils and adenoids include:

Tonsillitis: Inflammation of the tonsils due to bacterial or viral infections. Symptoms include sore throat, difficulty swallowing, and fever.

Adenoiditis: Infection or inflammation of the adenoids, often leading to nasal congestion, difficulty breathing through the nose, and ear infections.

Obstruction: Enlarged tonsils or adenoids can obstruct the airway, causing snoring, sleep apnea, and disrupted sleep patterns.

Chronic or Recurrent Infections: Tonsils and adenoids can harbor bacteria and viruses, leading to frequent bouts of infections, particularly in children.

Abscesses: Tonsillar abscesses (peritonsillar abscesses) can develop from untreated tonsillitis, causing severe throat pain and difficulty swallowing.

Breathing Problems: Enlarged adenoids can block the nasal airway, causing mouth breathing and associated issues like dry mouth and bad breath.

Ear Infections: Adenoid enlargement can lead to eustachian tube dysfunction, increasing the risk of middle ear infections (otitis media).

Snoring and Sleep Apnea: Obstructive sleep apnea can result from enlarged tonsils or adenoids blocking the airway during sleep, leading to fragmented sleep and daytime fatigue.

Speech and Swallowing Issues: Large tonsils or adenoids can affect speech development in children and cause discomfort during swallowing.

Cancer: While rare, tonsil or adenoid cancers can develop, especially in adults, presenting as persistent sore throat, difficulty swallowing, or a lump in the neck.

Management of these issues can range from conservative treatments like antibiotics for infections to surgical interventions such as tonsillectomy or adenoidectomy for chronic or severe cases. Proper diagnosis by a healthcare professional is crucial for determining the most appropriate treatment approach tailored to each individual case.

Recovery Tips After Tonsil and Adenoid Surgery

Recovery after tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy, both common surgical procedures, requires careful post-operative care to promote healing and minimize complications. Here are essential recovery tips:

Pain Management: Expect throat pain and discomfort. Take prescribed pain medications as directed by your doctor. Over-the-counter pain relievers like acetaminophen or ibuprofen may also help.

Hydration: Drink plenty of fluids to stay hydrated. Cold liquids can help soothe the throat. Avoid acidic or spicy beverages that can irritate the healing tissues.

Rest: Allow adequate rest to facilitate recovery. Avoid strenuous activities, heavy lifting, or vigorous exercise for at least 1-2 weeks post-surgery.

Soft Diet: Stick to soft, cool foods initially such as soups, yogurt, mashed potatoes, and smoothies. Avoid rough, crunchy, or spicy foods that could scratch or irritate the throat.

Gargling and Rinsing: Follow your doctor’s instructions on gargling with saltwater or using a prescribed mouthwash to reduce the risk of infection and keep the surgical site clean.

Bleeding Precautions: Some minimal bleeding is normal initially. Avoid aspirin and other blood-thinning medications that can increase bleeding risk. If bleeding is excessive or persists, contact your healthcare provider immediately.

Breathing and Sleeping: Elevate your head while sleeping to ease breathing and reduce swelling. This also helps prevent potential complications like obstructive sleep apnea.

Follow-up Appointments: Attend all scheduled follow-up appointments with your doctor to monitor healing progress and address any concerns promptly.

Activity Restrictions: Avoid smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke, as well as environments with airborne irritants or pollutants that can hinder healing.

Symptom Monitoring: Be aware of signs of infection such as fever, worsening pain, or foul-smelling discharge. Contact your doctor if you experience these symptoms.

Patience: Recovery times vary, but most adults recover within 1-2 weeks, while children may take longer. Listen to your body and gradually resume normal activities as you feel able to.

By following these recovery tips diligently and staying in close communication with your healthcare team, you can promote a smoother recovery process after tonsil and adenoid surgery and reduce the likelihood of complications.

Conclusion :

Finding the Best Treatment for Tonsils and Adenoids in Madinaguda involves considering several factors such as the expertise of healthcare providers, the availability of advanced diagnostic tools, and comprehensive care facilities. Whether seeking surgical intervention like tonsillectomy or adenoidectomy, or exploring conservative management options, such as medications or therapies, choosing a healthcare provider who prioritizes patient care, safety, and effective treatment outcomes is essential for addressing these common ENT issues effectively.

Pacemaker Implantation

What is a Pacemaker?


Pacemaker is a small device implanted under the skin to regulate heart rhythm by sending electrical pulses to the heart muscle, ensuring it beats regularly and efficiently. It’s used to treat arrhythmias and improve overall heart function.
The main function of a pacemaker is to monitor the heart’s electrical activity and intervene when it detects irregularities. The heart relies on electrical impulses to contract and pump blood effectively. In some individuals, these impulses may become irregular or too slow, leading to symptoms such as dizziness, fainting, shortness of breath, or fatigue. A pacemaker helps by sending electrical impulses to the heart muscle, ensuring it beats at a regular rhythm and maintains an adequate heart rate.

Components of a Pacemaker:

Pulse Generator: This is the main component of the pacemaker and contains the battery and electronic circuitry. The battery supplies power to the pacemaker and can last several years depending on usage.
Leads: These are thin, insulated wires that carry electrical impulses from the pulse generator to the heart and transmit information about the heart’s activity back to the pulse generator. Modern pacemakers can have one to three leads depending on the type of arrhythmia being treated.
Sensing Electrodes: These are part of the leads and detect the heart’s natural electrical signals. The pacemaker uses this information to determine when and how to deliver electrical impulses.
Programmer: This is an external device used by healthcare providers to program and adjust the settings of the pacemaker. It allows customization of the pacing parameters based on the patient’s specific needs.


How a Pacemaker Works:

Sensing: The pacemaker continuously monitors the heart’s electrical activity through the sensing electrodes. It detects the natural heartbeat and determines if additional pacing is needed.
Pacing: If the pacemaker detects a slow heart rate or an abnormal rhythm, it delivers a small electrical impulse to the heart muscle through the leads. This causes the heart to contract and maintain a regular rhythm.
Rate-Responsive: Some pacemakers are designed to adjust the heart rate based on the body’s needs. They can increase heart rate during physical activity and decrease it during rest.
Monitoring: Pacemakers can store information about the heart’s activity, which can be retrieved during follow-up appointments to assess how well the device is functioning and to make any necessary adjustments.

Types of Pacemakers:

Single-Chamber Pacemakers: These have one lead connected either to the right atrium (upper chamber) or the right ventricle (lower chamber) of the heart.
Dual-Chamber Pacemakers: These have two leads—one in the right atrium and one in the right ventricle. They coordinate the timing of electrical impulses between the two chambers to mimic the heart’s natural rhythm more closely.
Biventricular Pacemakers (Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy, CRT): These are used in patients with heart failure and have three leads—one in the right atrium and two in the right and left ventricles. They help synchronize the contractions of the heart’s lower chambers to improve pumping efficiency.

The Benefits of Pacemaker Implantation

Pacemaker implantation offers significant benefits for individuals with certain cardiac conditions characterized by abnormal heart rhythms or slow heart rates (bradycardia). Here are the key benefits:
Restoration of Normal Heart Rate: Pacemakers ensure that the heart beats at a regular rate, which is crucial for maintaining adequate blood flow to the body’s organs and tissues. By delivering electrical impulses to the heart muscle when needed, pacemakers prevent symptoms associated with slow heart rates, such as dizziness, fainting, fatigue, and shortness of breath.
Improved Quality of Life: For many patients, pacemaker implantation leads to a dramatic improvement in symptoms and overall quality of life. It allows individuals to resume normal daily activities without the limitations imposed by symptoms of bradycardia or irregular heart rhythms.
Symptom Relief: Pacemakers effectively alleviate symptoms caused by bradycardia, such as lightheadedness, weakness, and episodes of passing out (syncope). By maintaining a steady heart rate, these devices prevent interruptions in blood flow that can cause these distressing symptoms.
Enhanced Exercise Tolerance: Individuals with pacemakers often experience improved exercise tolerance and endurance. By ensuring the heart responds appropriately to physical activity, pacemakers enable patients to exercise regularly without experiencing symptoms of inadequate blood circulation or heart rhythm disturbances.
Prevention of Complications: Pacemakers help prevent potentially serious complications associated with untreated bradycardia or certain arrhythmias. These may include heart failure, stroke, or other cardiovascular events that can arise when the heart’s rhythm is irregular or too slow to meet the body’s demands.
Customizable Therapy: Modern pacemakers are programmable devices that allow healthcare providers to customize pacing parameters based on individual patient needs. This flexibility ensures optimal therapy tailored to each patient’s specific condition and physiological requirements.
Long-Term Management: Pacemakers are durable devices with batteries that typically last several years. Regular follow-up appointments are necessary to monitor the device’s function, adjust settings as needed, and replace the device when the battery eventually runs out. Long-term management ensures ongoing effectiveness in managing cardiac rhythm disorders.
Technological Advancements: Advances in pacemaker technology continue to improve device performance, longevity, and patient outcomes. New features such as rate responsiveness (adjusting heart rate based on activity level) and remote monitoring capabilities enhance patient safety and convenience.
Safety and Reliability: Pacemakers have a proven safety record and are considered a reliable treatment option for individuals with specific cardiac conditions. The procedure for implantation is generally safe, with low rates of complications when performed by experienced healthcare providers in appropriate clinical settings.

What to Expect After Pacemaker Surgery

After pacemaker surgery, patients can expect a period of recovery and adjustment as they adapt to the presence of the device and its impact on their daily lives. Here’s a comprehensive overview of what to expect:
Immediately After Surgery:
Hospital Stay: Most patients remain hospitalized for monitoring and recovery for 1-2 days after pacemaker implantation. During this time, vital signs are closely monitored, and any post-operative pain or discomfort is managed with medications.
Incision Care: Patients will have a small incision where the pacemaker was implanted, usually near the collarbone. It’s important to keep this area clean and dry to prevent infection. The healthcare team will provide instructions on how to care for the incision and when to remove any dressings.
Activity Restrictions: Initially, patients are advised to limit movement of the arm on the side where the pacemaker was implanted to allow the incision site to heal properly. Heavy lifting and strenuous activities should be avoided for a few weeks to prevent strain on the incision.


Recovery Tips for Pacemaker Patients

Recovery after receiving a pacemaker involves several key steps to ensure optimal healing and adjustment to the device. Here are some essential recovery tips for pacemaker patients:
Post-Procedure Care: Immediately after implantation, it’s crucial to follow the doctor’s instructions regarding wound care and activity restrictions. Keeping the incision site clean and dry helps prevent infection.
Activity Level: Initially, avoid strenuous activities and lifting heavy objects to allow the pacemaker leads to settle properly. Gradually resume normal activities as advised by your healthcare provider.
Medication Adherence: Take all prescribed medications regularly, especially those related to preventing infection or managing heart conditions.
Monitoring: Attend follow-up appointments to ensure the pacemaker is functioning correctly and to adjust settings if needed. Remote monitoring systems can also be set up for regular check-ups.
Driving Restrictions: Discuss with your doctor when you can safely resume driving, as regulations vary depending on location and individual circumstances.
Lifestyle Adjustments: Adopt a heart-healthy lifestyle, including a balanced diet low in sodium and saturated fats, regular exercise within recommended limits, and avoiding smoking and excessive alcohol consumption.
Emotional Support: Adjusting to life with a pacemaker can be challenging emotionally. Seek support from family, friends, or support groups to share experiences and address concerns.
Device Identification Card: Carry a pacemaker identification card at all times, which provides crucial information in emergencies and during security screenings.
Electromagnetic Interference: Be mindful of devices or environments that could interfere with the pacemaker’s function, such as strong magnets or certain medical procedures. Your healthcare provider can provide specific guidelines.
Alert Healthcare Providers: Inform all healthcare providers about your pacemaker before any procedures, tests, or treatments to avoid potential complications.
Watch for Signs of Complications: Be aware of symptoms like dizziness, chest pain, palpitations, or swelling around the device site, which could indicate issues needing immediate medical attention.
Education and Support: Educate yourself about your pacemaker model, its functions, and potential signs of malfunction. Knowledge empowers you to manage your health effectively.

Conclusion :

Choosing the best hospital for Pacemaker Implantation in Madinaguda involves considering factors such as the hospital’s reputation, the expertise of cardiologists and cardiac surgeons, the availability of advanced technology for diagnostics and procedures, patient outcomes, and the quality of post-operative care. Researching and consulting with healthcare professionals is essential to ensure you receive the highest standard of cardiac care tailored to your specific needs and preferences.

Ear Nose and Throat (ENT) Problems and Treatments

ENT Issues When to Consult an ENT Expert

We have to balance work and home in today’s fast-paced society. Therefore, it is even more crucial that we take additional care of our health. But frequently, especially when it comes to ENT (ear, nose, and throat) problems, we neglect to take the simple steps that our bodies require to remain healthy. Initially, we frequently have a tendency to ignore them or attempt home cures, which can occasionally make the situation worse and become a chronic illness.

These are some typical ENT problems that you should not put off seeking immediate attention from an ENT specialist.

Prolonged Sore Throat:

Mild illnesses or certain other conditions can cause sore throats. A few drugs or treatments may sometimes help them get better, but if the issue continues, it may raise some red flags. You should consult our ENT specialist in Madinaguda if you have been suffering from a painful throat for an extended period. Early treatment can prevent numerous consequences from developing from a sore throat, which can indicate many ailments and diseases.

Tonsil Issues :


An ENT expert should always be consulted for tonsil issues. Waiting for your home cures to take effect won’t help; in fact, many symptoms will only worsen with time. They could lead to issues like severe sore throats or trouble swallowing. It’s critical to visit a doctor since tonsil issues require prompt treatment.

Unexpected Deafness:

You might believe that your throat has nothing to do with your unexpected loss of hearing. In actuality, though, your throat, nose, and ears are all connected. Hearing loss requires emergency medical attention since it may indicate more serious underlying issues. Visit our Hospital for ENT treatment from one of the top ENT Doctors in Madinaguda if you have abrupt hearing loss or other hearing problems.

A Lump in the Neck :

A lump in the neck may indicate more serious medical conditions including thyroid or glandular problems. It may potentially be an indication of malignancy. Therefore, you need to consult a physician as soon as you discover a lump in your neck. You can recover and prevent serious consequences with the correct care and drugs.

Sinus Ache:

An ENT specialist is necessary for the treatment of sinus pain, which might indicate many different diseases. Common colds, viral infections, sore throats, and a host of other issues are associated with sinuses. The best course of action is to have this investigated because the appropriate care can improve your quality of life and make it more comfortable for you.

The Hospital for ENT Treatment at Archana Hospital, Madinaguda offers state-of-the-art equipment, state-of-the-art diagnostic facilities, and some of the best ENT doctors in the area to provide the best care. You can get relief from serious ENT difficulties such as sinus problems, ear pain, throat problems, and more with our cutting-edge diagnostic and surgical technology. To learn more about our offerings and facilities, please get in contact.

Valve Replacement Surgery: Types, Procedures, And Recovery

Valve Replacement Surgery: Types, Procedures, And Recovery

A form of heart illness called valvular Heart Disease arises when one or more of the four heart valves malfunction. Surgery to replace the heart valves may be necessary if they are too brittle, damaged, or otherwise unfit to mend. This procedure can be necessary if you have an aortic valve problem.
Blood flows from your heart into your aorta, which is your body’s main artery when this valve opens. When it shuts, blood flows to the rest of your body. When your aortic valve closes, it stops blood from flowing backward into your heart. It repeats this cycle with every pulse. Your physician might suggest replacing the valve surgically.

Why Could I Require Surgery To Replace Or Repair A Heart Valve?

Surgery to replace or repair one or more damaged heart valves is done to address the problems they cause.
The following symptoms could indicate heart valve injury or disease:

What Are The Risks Of Having Surgery To Replace Or Repair A Heart Valve?

The following hazards could arise with heart valve replacement or repair surgery:
> Bleeding during or after the surgery
> Blood clots that can cause lung problems, heart attacks, or strokes
> Virus Infection
> A case of pneumonia
> Pancreatitis
> Breathing difficulties

Types Of Heart Valve Surgery

The following are the two kinds of heart valve surgery:
> A large portion of the patient’s tissue is preserved during valve repair surgery, which replaces the damaged or faulty valve. The mitral valve is repaired most frequently, while problems with the aortic and tricuspid valves can also be addressed with repair surgery.
> Surgery to replace the damaged valve with a biological (derived from pig, cow, or human tissue) or mechanical (made of metal or carbon) valve. Your body won’t reject the replacement valve because every valve replacement is biocompatible.
To identify the kind, location, and degree of your valve ailment, your healthcare provider will test you. The test results are used to choose the best procedure for you. The following will also be considered by your physician:
Your cardiac surgeon may choose to combine valve surgery with other cardiac procedures. Examples include combining valve surgery with: and performing several valve surgeries simultaneously during surgery.
> Avoid surgery
> Procedure to treat an aortic aneurysm
> Surgical treatment for atrial fibrillation
Medicines And Food
Speak with your healthcare provider about:
> When and how should you take your regular medications before surgery?
> When should you stop eating and drinking before surgery?
Personal Goods And Clothing
Your healthcare providers may suggest that you bring several items to the hospital, including:
What Happens After A Heart Valve Operation?
After surgery, your medical team may move you to an intensive care unit (ICU) so they can keep a close eye on you. After that, you’ll be in a typical room. Five to seven days could pass while you’re in the hospital.
There will be gadgets linked to you to monitor your heart rate and blood pressure. You may also have tubes going out of your chest to drain fluid.
Your surgeon will advise you to resume eating, drinking, and exercising as soon as possible following surgery. You might start with short walks in your room or down the hallway and work your way up to a larger distance.
Your physician could advise you to sign up for cardiac rehab, which is a strictly monitored workout regimen.
Complete healing could take many weeks or even months, depending on your healing pace and the type of operation you had. Keeping your incisions clean is essential because infection is the major concern right after surgery. Never delay in contacting your physician if you see any of the following symptoms of a disease:
fever, chills, soreness or edema near the wound, and a buildup of wound drainage.
When ought I to see my physician?
Consult your physician if
> Your chest or the region surrounding your incision pain.
> You go through depressive episodes. This can happen after surgery and make recovery take longer.
> You may have an infection if you have a fever.
> Your weight has increased by more than five pounds, which suggests fluid retention.

Best cystoscope Hospital in Madinaguda – cystoscope

What is cystoscopy?






A cystoscopy is a process used by medical professionals to see inside the bladder and urethra (the tube that removes waste from the body). It is carried out by a urologist using a lit instrument called a cystoscope that has a camera or viewing lens.

What are the types of cystoscopes?

Two varieties of cystoscopes exist:

Flexible cystoscope: Your doctor may inspect the interior of your bladder and urethra by carefully following the natural course of your urethra with a flexible scope.

Rigid cystoscopes: They don’t bend. Instruments for biopsies or tumor removal may be passed via the tube by your healthcare professional. Usually, this cystoscope is only utilized under general anesthesia or sedation.

The one that functions best for your particular treatment will be used by your healthcare professional.

When should I know the results of cystoscopy?

Your provider might not get the results of your biopsy for up to two weeks. Your practitioner will be aware of the outcome as they proceed if they are solely performing a cystoscopy and no other treatments concurrently. Find out from your provider when you can expect to receive a notification or see your results in your records.

When should I call my healthcare provider?

The majority of post-procedure issues, such as painful urination and bloody urine, resolve in a day or two. If issues persist longer than expected or if you encounter:

> Intense pain with urination.

> Significant blood flow or clots in your urine.

> A painfully full bladder and difficulty urinating.

> Symptoms of infection (pelvic discomfort, fever, foul-smelling or hazy urine).

Preparation Before Cystoscopy

Before performing a cystoscopy, a urologist may question a patient about any allergies, past medical history, and pre-procedural measures. The physician might advise:

> Before the surgery, stop using medications, such as blood thinners.

> When to eat and drink

> When to empty the bladder before the procedure or to give a urine sample for laboratory test

Who needs a Cystoscopy?

A cystoscopy may be advised by the physician if a patient encounters:

> Problems passing pee or controlling urination

> Stone in the bladder

> Blood in the pee or hemoptysis

> Dysuria, or pain during urinating

> Urinary tract infection that keeps coming back

What are the potential risks or complications of a cystoscopy?

Cystoscopy procedures are generally low-risk. Possible issues consist of:

> Infection (UTI).

> Contractions of the bladder. These may result in leaking urine and excruciating pains.

> Harm to your bladder.

> Harm to your urethra, such as constriction or scarring.

Side Effects of Cystoscopy

Following a cystoscopy, some adverse effects include:

> Urine with blood in it, usually just a few drops

> Burning in the urine, discomfort, and frequent urination for a few hours

Side effects peak to fade after 48 hours. See a physician if the issues persist longer and result in really painful urinating.


Archana Hospitals in Madinaguda stands out as the premier destination for cystoscopy procedures. Renowned for its advanced facilities and skilled medical professionals, it ensures top-notch care and accurate diagnostics. Patients receive comprehensive treatment, coupled with compassionate support, ensuring optimal outcomes and peace of mind. Trust Archana Hospitals for unparalleled excellence in cystoscopy procedures.

ACL Repair Causes, Treatment, Repair & Recovery

ACL Repair Causes, Treatment,

 Repair & Recovery

One important ligament that stabilizes the knee joint is the Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL). Its function is to stop the tibia bone from moving forward too much about the femur bone. One common sports injury that needs surgical repair is an ACL tear. This blog will discuss the causes, care, and recovery of an ACL reconstruction.

 Causes of ACL Tears :

ACL tears can happen for several reasons, including:

Sports injuries: Because high-impact sports like football, basketball, and soccer require quick stops, pivots, or direction changes, players are likelier to suffer an ACL tear.

Trauma: Other traumatic occurrences that put undue strain or tension on the knee joint, such as falls, auto accidents, or other collisions, can also result in an ACL tear.

Overuse: Activities like long-distance running and jumping that repeatedly put stress on the knee joint raise the possibility of an ACL tear.

Treatment Options for ACL Tear

The degree of the injury determines how an ACL tear is treated. While non-surgical therapy options could be enough in some circumstances, surgery might be necessary in others.

1. Non-surgical treatment: Physiotherapy, pain management, and rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE) therapy are examples of non-surgical treatment alternatives. Protocol-Oriented Regaining functional independence requires physiotherapy, and patients with ACL injuries are always encouraged to perform these exercises to strengthen their knees.

2. Surgical intervention: Surgery is required when there is a high-grade ACL injury and noticeable indications of knee instability. During ACL repair surgery, a tissue graft—typically derived from the patient’s patellar tendon or hamstring—is used to reconstruct the injured ligament. The process is carried out as keyhole Surgery

Recovery from ACL Reconstruction Surgery

Professional athletes recuperate from ACL reconstruction surgery differently than non-professional players. It is advised that professional athletes wait six months before returning to competition, but this can be shortened to four months.  

Patients can usually get back to their regular activities in 3–5 weeks, and they can return to sports in 4-6 months. Physical therapy is required to restore the knee joint’s strength, flexibility, and range of motion throughout the healing phase.

In conclusion, a typical sports injury that can be quite crippling to the targeted athlete is an ACL tear. Depending on how severe the injury is, there are non-surgical and surgical treatment options. The recovery period following ACL reconstruction surgery can range from six weeks to three months. Patients who receive precise surgical care, appropriate post-operative care, and well-coordinated physiotherapy can restore complete functioning to their knee joint. 

Archana Hospitals excels in ACL reconstruction surgery, offering state-of-the-art facilities and expert surgeons. Patients receive personalized care, innovative techniques, and comprehensive rehabilitation, ensuring optimal recovery and restored knee function. Trust Archana Hospitals for exceptional outcomes in ACL reconstruction.





The surgical treatment used to eliminate hemorrhoids is called a hemorrhoidectomy. Hemorrhoids usually don’t require surgery, but if they persist or create significant problems, a hemorrhoidectomy can permanently remove them. The process is straightforward, although recuperation could be a little challenging. Take our recommendations to reduce discomfort and avoid constipation.


What is a Hemorrhoidectomy?

The surgical treatment used to eliminate Hemorrhoids is called a hemorrhoidectomy. Enlarged blood vessels in the anus (butthole) known as hemorrhoids can occasionally result in painful symptoms including bleeding and anal pain.

Hemorrhoids are quite frequent and often not harmful. Most won’t even need surgery or other medical care. However, a hemorrhoidectomy may be the best course of action for some hemorrhoids and in some situations.

Risks / Benefits

What benefits does hemorrhoidectomy offer in comparison to other hemorrhoid treatments?

The main benefit is that it functions. Surgically excised hemorrhoids usually don’t recur. Surgery should ultimately provide you with permanent relief, even though the recovery period is longer than with other treatments.

Another crucial option in an emergency is a hemorrhoidectomy. Surgery can be used to treat a thrombosed or strangulated hemorrhoid quickly and avoid worsening the condition.

What makes a Person get a Hemorrhoidectomy?

If your hemorrhoids are more complicated than usual, your doctor may suggest hemorrhoidectomy surgery. The following complications could necessitate a hemorrhoidectomy:

Prolapse: This indicates that your hemorrhoids have descended from inside your anus and are now protruding from the orifice, increasing the risk of irritation, bleeding, or injury. Prolapse is a progressive condition that often gets worse with time. Initially, Grade II hemorrhoids may only momentarily protrude from your anus during a bowel movement. However, your provider could advise removing them if you have to manually put them back in (Grade III) or if they won’t go back in at all (Grade IV).

Thrombosis: This is the point at which the hemorrhoid has swelled to the point where blood clots inside it, stopping the flow of blood. The color of thrombosed hemorrhoids is purple-blue. They may cause excruciating agony. They may occasionally burst, heavily bleeding. It will eventually heal on its own if you do not seek treatment straight away. But you might prefer surgery during the excruciating first 72 hours.

Constriction Incarcerated hemorrhoids are another name for Grade IV hemorrhoids that have prolapsed and refused to retract. A hemorrhoid in prison runs the risk of strangling itself. When something is strangled, it indicates that its circulation has been cut off and it is stuck in a constricted area. There is an urgent situation. In contrast to thrombosis, strangulation is not a self-limiting illness. Gangrene results from the strangulated tissues’ eventual death.

ReturnHemorrhoids can recur after less intrusive treatments or don’t go away. This may have a significant long-term effect on your life quality. Hemorrhoidectomy has a 95% success rate when other therapies are unsuccessful. You may decide to get a hemorrhoidectomy to permanently remove these hemorrhoids, even if you don’t have any other difficulties.

What can I anticipate from my hemorrhoidectomy recovery?

Following a hemorrhoidectomy, you could anticipate varying degrees of:

Bleeding: Following a hemorrhoidectomy, some bleeding is typical, particularly after a bowel movement (poop). There may be blood on your toilet paper or in your feces. Along with some clear or yellow discharge, you can also notice some in your underpants. To assist in absorbing the liquid, you can use gauze or a sanitary pad. This may go on for a month or longer. There shouldn’t be much blood. If you strain too hard to void, you run the risk of splitting the wound open, which could lead to more serious bleeding. To avoid this, constipation must be avoided. Occasionally, some patients have acute bleeding following surgery.

Swelling: Following a hemorrhoidectomy, swelling is typical. Anus swelling might have a feeling akin to hemorrhoids. It’s possible that you still think of them or that they’ve returned, but these are false impressions. Occasionally, a skin tag or lump may appear where the wound was made, which can also be misleading. Usually, these disappear after you’ve healed. Everyone’s healing process is different. Applying ice wrapped in a towel to the incision a few times a day for ten minutes at a time will help minimize swelling. Lying on your stomach with a pillow under your hips can also be beneficial. Try to sleep in this manner.

Pain: After a hemorrhoidectomy, some pain is to be expected, and most patients report rather high pain levels. However, you ought to be able to use medicine to control your pain. Typically, medical professionals provide a range of pain management techniques, such as topical and oral drugs as well as gentle wound care. Start taking your drugs as soon as you feel any discomfort following your procedure to avoid it altogether. Most report that, after two weeks, the pain has subsided. Consult your healthcare practitioner if your discomfort persists for more than two weeks, if you find it difficult to manage, or if it keeps you from urinating or passing gas.

Recovery after Haemorrhoid Removal

Following your Hemorrhoid removal, you may be advised to do the following self-care measures:

Medication: Take your prescriptions exactly as directed by your physician. This could involve laxatives, antibiotics, and painkillers.

Activities: Make sure you get enough sleep, but also make time to be active. Walking is a wise decision.

Diet: A diet that reduces the likelihood of constipation may be advised by your doctor.

Additional actions could be using ice packs, taking stool softeners, taking a sitz bath, and drinking plenty of water.

Recovery after Haemorrhoid Removal

Following your Hemorrhoid removal, you may be advised to do the following self-care measures:

Medication: Take your prescriptions exactly as directed by your physician. This could involve laxatives, antibiotics, and painkillers.

Activities: Make sure you get enough sleep, but also make time to be active. Walking is a wise decision.

Diet: A diet that reduces the likelihood of constipation may be advised by your doctor.

Additional actions could be using ice packs, taking stool softeners, taking a sitz bath, and drinking plenty of water.

What are the possible risks or complications of hemorrhoidectomy surgery?

Among the short-term hazards of surgery are:


Negative effects of the anesthetic.

Infection of the wound.

Excessive loss of blood.

Among the issues that could arise when you’re recovering are:

Possible long-term complications that can develop include:

Gradual recovery.

Severe pain even after taking medicine.

Urinary retention due to pain when peeing.

Constipation due to pain when pooping.

Narrowing of your anal canal from excessive scarring (anal stenosis).

Difficulty holding in your bowel movements due to muscle or nerve damage (fecal incontinence).

With careful technique, serious complications are rare.

Who is not a candidate for a hemorrhoidectomy?

If you have specific medical conditions that could raise your risk of major complications from the treatment, your healthcare professional might not propose hemorrhoidectomy for you. Among them are:


Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

Bleeding disorders.

Portal hypertension.

Kidney Stones Treatment in Hyderabad | and Surgery Treatment Options

Kidney Stones : What are the

 Treatment Options?

You may have a few therapy choices if kidney stones, also known as urolithiasis, have been identified in you. These include ureteroscopy, percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PCNL), extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), and medicinal therapy.

An overview of the urinary tract’s anatomy

The urinary tract consists of

> Kidneys, two organs that remove excess water and waste from the blood

> Ureters, the two tubes that each kidney uses to send urine to the bladder

> Bladder, the organ that holds pee

> The urethra is a single channel that the body uses to expel urine from the bladder.

The kidney stone assessment

An evaluation that includes imaging is frequently the first step if your symptoms point to kidney stones. An intravenous pyelogram (IVP), a form of abdomen x-ray, was the accepted standard of therapy for a long time. This is no longer used in the majority of hospitals; instead, unenhanced helical CT scanning is used. Renal ultrasound can be used as a substitute in some circumstances, such as when a person has decreased renal function or an allergy to contrast dyes.

Blood tests, such as those for renal function (creatinine, BUN), will also be administered to you. Further blood tests may also be recommended by your physician. If an infection is suspected, a urine culture will be provided along with the results of the urinalysis.

Treatment with Medication for Kidney Stones

According to the majority of data, stones smaller than 10 mm in diameter have a good possibility of naturally exiting the urinary system. You can be recommended to undergo medical expulsive therapy (MET) with an alpha blocker drug such as tamsulosin. It’s critical to recognize that this is an off-label use of the medication. Intraoperative floppy iris syndrome is a rare complication that tamsulosin and can occasionally develop and complicate cataract surgery.

The use of MET is still debatable, and not all specialists agree that it is beneficial. Talk to a urologist or your doctor about your options.

lithotripsy using Extracorporeal Shock Waves

Every shock wave lithotripsy device sends shock waves through the kidney stone’s skin. The stone receives most, but not all, of the energy from the shock wave.

The best indicator of ESWL success is stone size. In general:

> Stones smaller than 10 mm can be successfully treated with ESWL; 

> For stones between 10 and 20 mm, extra considerations including stone placement and composition should be made. 

> Stones bigger than 20 mm are typically not successfully treated with ESWL.

Because the shards of a lower third kidney stone may not be completely removed from the kidney following fragmentation, these stones can also be harmful. These kidney fragments don’t exit the kidney as quickly as kidney fragments from the middle and upper thirds because of gravity.

The effectiveness of ESWL treatment is also influenced by obesity. The skin-to-stone distance (SSD) will be computed by the urologist to assess the likelihood of treatment success.

Among the potential side effects of ESWL

> Hemostases, or bruises to the kidney tissue, can happen occasionally but normally go away on their own with no further care.

> In the ureter, fragmented stones may build up and become obstructed. This is referred described as a “street of stones,” or steinstrasse. Any issues related to steinstrasse are frequently reduced by a ureteral stent. The procedure takes a few days or weeks to complete.

> Hypertension occurs in a tiny subset of patients receiving ESWL, while the exact mechanism is unknown.

There have also been reports of an elevated risk of diabetes mellitus after ESWL. Nevertheless, sizable population research conducted at the same institution did not support these findings.

Intraoperative nephrolithotripsy:

During percutaneous nephrolithotripsy, a surgeon makes a tiny incision in the lower back to access kidney stones under the supervision of ultrasound or fluoroscopic imaging. The stones are broken up by a power source, like a laser or ultrasonography, and then the pieces are removed from the kidney using an internal stent or external tube.

Greater kidney stones (2 cm or more), complicated stones, or lower pole renal stones greater than 1 cm are typically candidates for this treatment. Complications could include bleeding, infection, and harm to the organs nearby.


During a ureteroscopy, a surgeon inserts a tube into the ureter, possibly all the way up into the kidney, via the urethra and bladder. Using semirigid or flexible equipment, ureteroscopy provides the surgeon with a great view of the entire inside of the urethra. The stones are then broken apart under direct observation by the surgeon using a power source that is threaded up through the ureteroscope. The urologist may decide to insert a postoperative stent for a few days.

While they are rare, complications can include sepsis and ureteric damage or constriction.